A solar eclipse occurs when the new Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, casting a shadow on the Earth. There are three types of solar eclipses: annular, partial, and total.
A partial solar eclipse occurs when the Sun and the Moon are not quite lined up. In this case, the Moon covers only a section of the Sun. This kind of eclipse usually goes unnoticed by most people on Earth because the sunlight is scarcely dimmed.
A total solar eclipse, however, is much more spectacular. At totality, the disc of the Sun is completely obscured by the new Moon, and only the ghostly solar corona and perhaps gigantic solar flares are visible around the edges of the Moon. Those parts of the Earth experiencing totality become very dark and it is possible to see stars in the sky.
An annular solar eclipse is similar to a total eclipse except that the new Moon is near apogee and its disc appears slightly smaller than that of the Sun. Thus, a bright ring or annulus of the solar disc remains at maximum eclipse, and the sky does not become dark.
There are at least two and sometimes as many as five solar eclipses every year. Why don't we have a solar eclipse during every new Moon? This is because the Moon's orbit around the Earth is at an angle to the ecliptic. The new Moon usually passes above or below the Sun as seen from the Earth and thus there is no eclipse. The proper alignment for a solar eclipse occurs only a few times a year.
Another kind of eclipse is a lunar eclipse which occurs when the Moon passes through the shadow cast by the Earth. A lunar eclipse only occurs when the Moon is full and for the same reasons given above, happens only two or three times a year.
A lunar eclipse may be total, partial or penumbral. A total lunar eclipse causes the full Moon to slowly darken as it enters the umbra of the Earth and at totality, the Moon may take on a dark coppery colour. During a partial lunar eclipse, the Moon does not fully enter the umbra of the Earth. A penumbral lunar eclipse is likely to go unnoticed as the Moon passes through the Earth's penumbra and does not dim a great deal.
You risk permanent damage to your eyes if you look at the Sun directly or through a camera viewfinder or through any kind of magnifying lens (for instance, binoculars or a telescope) unless you use proper solar filters. The safest way to observe a solar eclipse is to use a projection technique such as that employed by a pinhole camera.
If you wish to use binoculars, a camera or a telescope, then you must use a solar filter. Be sure that it is fitted on the Sun-side of the lens, not the eye-side. Cheap eyepiece filters such as those sold with inexpensive telescopes should never be used. Solar filters can be bought from camera and telescope dealers. Retinal damage can happen in seconds and cannot be repaired, so don't take chances.
Only the total phase of a solar eclipse can be viewed safely without filters.
The Moon is much less bright than the Sun so it is perfectly safe to observe a lunar eclipse without special protective equipment.
Your eyesight is precious. Protect it!
|Penumbral Lunar Eclipse : 10-11 February|
|Complete eclipse visibility:||western South America, northeastern North America, Atlantic, Africa, Europe, most of Middle East,western Russia|
|Moon eclipsed at moonrise:||most of North and South America|
|Moon eclipsed at moonset:||India, southeastern Asia, most of China|
|22:34 UT||The penumbral eclipse begins.|
|00:33 UT||Full Moon.|
|00:43 UT||Instant of greatest eclipse: penumbral magnitude = 0.988.|
|02:53 UT||The penumbral eclipse ends.|
|Annular Solar Eclipse : 26 February|
|Annular eclipse visibility:||Argentina, Chile, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia|
|Partial eclipse visibility:||parts of Antarctica, southern South America, southwestern Africa|
|12:10 UT||The partial eclipse begins.|
|13:15 UT||The annular eclipse begins.|
|14:53 UT||Instant of greatest eclipse: magnitude = 0.992|
|14:58 UT||New Moon.|
|16:31 UT||The annular eclipse ends.|
|17:36 UT||The partial eclipse ends.|
|Partial Lunar Eclipse : 7 August|
|Complete eclipse visibility:||southeastern Africa, parts of the Middle East, central Russia, India, southeastern Asia, western Australia|
|Moon eclipsed at moonrise:||Africa, Europe, western Russia|
|Moon eclipsed at moonset:||eastern Australia, New Zealand, Japan, eastern Russia|
|15:50 UT||The penumbral eclipse begins.|
|17:22 UT||The partial eclipse begins.|
|18:11 UT||Full Moon.|
|18:20 UT||Instant of greatest eclipse: umbral magnitude = 0.247.|
|19:18 UT||The partial eclipse ends.|
|20:50 UT||The penumbral eclipse ends.|
|Total Solar Eclipse : 21 August|
|Total eclipse visibility:||United States (Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, George, North and South Carolina)|
|Partial eclipse visibility:||North America, Central America, northern South America|
|15:46 UT||The partial eclipse begins.|
|16:48 UT||The total eclipse begins.|
|18:25 UT||Instant of greatest eclipse: magnitude = 1.031.|
|18:30 UT||New Moon.|
|20:02 UT||The total eclipse ends.|
|21:04 UT||The partial eclipse ends.|